Baptiste Coquinot, Philip J. Morrison, A General Metriplectic Framework With Application To Dissipative Extended Magnetohydrodynamics, Journal of Plasma Physics (2020)
General equations for conservative yet dissipative (entropy producing) extended magnetohydrodynamics are derived from two-fluid theory. Keeping all terms generates unusual cross-effects, such as thermophoresis and a current viscosity that mixes with the usual velocity viscosity. While the Poisson bracket of the ideal version of this model has already been discovered, we determine its metriplectic counterpart that describes the dissipation. This is done using a new and general thermodynamic point of view to derive dissipative brackets, a means of derivation that is natural for understanding and creating dissipative dynamics without appealing to underlying kinetic theory orderings. Finally, the formalism is used to study dissipation in the Lagrangian variable picture where, in the context of extended magnetohydrodynamics, non-local dissipative brackets naturally emerge.